Paxil Wiki

paxil pill
Generic Paxil

Paxil, or paroxetine, is an antidepressant that belongs to the class of drugs called SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Paxil is a phenylpiperidine derivative that has shown having antimicrobial activity against several groups of microorganisms and when combined with other antibiotics, can fight several bacteria, mainly Gram positive microorganisms. Paxil is also considered to be one of the most potent and most specific selective SSRI that directly affects the brain neurons and thus is an effective antidepressant. In the United States, Paxil is one of the most prescribed antidepressants and considered to be one of the 100 bestselling drugs.

Paxil is used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, social phobias, major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Demonstrated to have antifungal activity, Paxil is most potent against the hypersusceptible Candida albicans strain DSY1204.

paxil depression
Paxil is an antidepressant

Manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Paxil is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after its effectiveness had been proven in six placebo-controlled clinical tests that were done.  GlaxoSmithKline also indicated precautions regarding taking Paxil that it might create or increase particular risks such as Serotonin Syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome or NMS-like reactions, especially when taken with other medications like monoamine oxidase inhibitor or MAOIs (i.e. linezolid – an antibiotic that is a non-selective reversible MAOI). MAOIs are a class of drugs used to treat psychiatric or emotional conditions, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. Examples of MAOIs are: isocarboxazid (Marplan), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar), furazolidone (Furoxone), pehnelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect) and tranylcypromine (Parnate).

Apart from MAOIs and linezolid (Zyvox), Paxil must not be taken together with thioridazine (Mellaril), pimozide (Orap) or methylene blue (Urolene Blue) because there will be a dangerous occurrence of a drug interaction that may lead to serious side effects. If a patient is taking a MAOI, a waiting period of at least 14 days must be taken before taking Paxil.

paxil spoon
Consult your physicain when dosing paxil

The recommended starting dosage of Paxil for adults with anxiety disorder, MDD, OCD and PTSD is 20 mg once a day. For patients with panic disorder, 10 mg once a day is recommended. For patients with social anxiety disorder, 20 mg once a day is recommended. The doctor may increase the dosage when necessary.

Adults taking Paxil for depression has fewer side effects compared to the older tricyclic antidepressants though.  Paxil is a more efficient treatment for major depressive disorders than placebo and is considered as an ideal medication for elderly patients.

Like most SSRIs, Paxil shares common side effects like somnolence (drowsiness or have a strong desire to sleep), high rates of nausea, weight gain, jerking movements, rigidity, constipation, diarrhea, vomiting and sexual side effects.

Due to Paxil’s side effects on reproduction or sex, adult men are advised by doctor’s not to take Paxil.

Paxil is a highly effective treatment to severe premenstrual syndrome. However, it is advised against women who may become pregnant. There is a high risk of withdrawal syndrome to both the fetus and the mother if Paxil taken. There were also evidence that Paxil can treat compulsive gambling, hot flushes and dysthmia, a chronic disorder that gives a person depressive symptoms for most days in a year.

paxil pregnant
Pregnant women should be cautious when taking paxil

Pregnant women, women who may be pregnant, children and everyone under the age of 18 are prohibited to take Paxil as it may cause heart ailments, major lung problems and heart defects to newborns. If women taking Paxil suddenly became pregnant, medication shouldn’t be stopped without talking to the physician first since patients may have a relapse of depression. Paxil can pass into breast milk and may harm the baby. So, Paxil should not be taken without the doctor’s by-your-leave.

Doctors and physicians must be told if the patient is taking other medications before taking Paxil. These include prescription, over-the-counter, dietary supplements, herbal medications and vitamins. There are drugs that if combined with Paxil can cause life-threatening effects.  Patients or their caregivers must tell the doctor if they have kidney disease, liver disease, blood-clotting disorder, seizures, suicidal thoughts, bipolar disorder, narrow-angle glaucoma (high pressure in the eye), and history of drug abuse before taking being recommended to take Paxil.

Paxil may increase the risk of bleeding. Paxil must not be taken with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin or blood thinners like warfarin without the physician or the doctor’s approval.

side effect paxil
paxil can cause side effects

Family or caregivers in charge of taking care of patients under Paxil medication must be alert regarding the changes or moods of the patient. Worsening depression, panic attacks, mood or behavioral changes, hostile or aggressive behavior, restlessness, trouble in sleeping, impulsiveness, agitation, hyperactive (physical or mental) or suicidal thoughts due to Paxil must be accounted for. Doctors would have to monitor and check the patient at regular visits for the first 12 weeks of Paxil treatment at least.

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires Paxil to be marketed with a black box warning (the most serious type of warning in prescription drug labeling) because of its high risk of suicidal behavior and ideation inducement. In the United Kingdom, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency urges individuals below 18 years old not to take Paxil and other SSRIs.

There were studies that suggest that Paxil and other paroxetine medication can be used to treat premature ejaculation, specifically intravaginal ejaculation latency time or IELT. Paxil taken 3 to 10 hours before coitus can kill the sex drive.

Paxil may be addicting

Paxil is also marketed as non-habit forming according to GlaxoSmithKline. However, it was reported that the World Health Organization (WHO) has ranked it as one of the most difficult antidepressant medication to withdraw from and can be addictive. Lawsuits ensued because of GSK’s suppressing of Paxil’s side effects, specifically serious discontinuation syndrome. Due to the difficulty of withdrawal from Paxil and GSK’s concealment of that fact, major news stations like the BBC and ABC had reported regarding Paxil, urging GSK to settle $2.5 million for consumer fraud.

In 2004, the FDA has issued a violation letter to GSK because of “false or misleading” television advertisement for Paxil CR. FDA said, “This ad is concerning from a public health perspective because it broadens the use of Paxil CR [beyond the conditions it was approved for] while also minimizing the serious risks associated with the drug.” GSK countered that the FDA has reviewed the Paxil advertisement, but conceded that the advertisement will not run anymore.

In 2008, Alison Bass’s book Side Effects: A Prosecutor, a Whistleblower, and a Bestselling Antidepressant on Trial chronicles the research findings on Paxil by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and the legalities, lawsuits and numerous trials regarding Paxil’s side effects.